Global MBA course: International Strategy and Management

the plan is I will go on teaching as if nothing is happening and you go on responding as if nothing is happening so
 it should look like she is already tensed so it should happen like it’s  course I have my slides today is the course on energy market and we will
discuss about emerging market then as it is written in the syllabus we will have three or four cases I do not know if you have the time but one is on China one is on India and two are on Latin America this is what I think was in the syllabus so but I thought that since there are no readings we will just speak about what are emerging markets why emerging markets are different and how we do business in emerging markets so the first question are is basically what are emerging markets so what would you think would be some of the factors that define
emerging markets yeah and high growth anything else yes so mostly under developing probably yeah means high GDP growth so high growth
 which leads to high GDP for sure so that is a cause means that is an effect toc the cause but what would be a definition
of emerging market that means that most emerging markets would have this characteristics so these are generalizable factors yeah
[Music] increasing middle class okay yeah for stability regards to corruption okay so stability instability of stability stability okay yes
manufacturing which might go to sourcing you said no manufacturing visa vie services yes services and here resources
 are more important to go to services yes countries the direct foreign investment is the cause of the effect so high growth causes countries people to anything else that might be interesting yes coming [Music] manpower manpower that means more people
and more manpower that means these countries have population as one of
their main factors of influence anything else interestingly all the things that you have said are true but these are not
the definition why because the definition is based on facts which can be replicable so this guy karoon conman Krishna Pillai Pugh defines emerging market as as follows usually there is information asymmetry which means that the rich and the poor
they have different informations that is why rich gets richer and poor gets poorer second is misguided regulations
political goals which is of course everywhere in the world but in these specific markets the political goals are
misguided for a few which means that few people can attract resources because of misguided political roles third is inefficient judicial system which means that all these countries would have judicial system but this would be misguided which means that some people
can take advantage of those some people cannot for example in India there was a company called Enron which not exist today so Enron opened in Mumbai near Maharaj
in Mumbai near Mumbai in Maharashtra a power plant and when the government changed they found that the power plant is supplying power at higher cost than the local power plant so the government questioned why this is so and the government thought that this is not to
 be done and since this is not to be done the government said we stopped business so Enron being a global company said if you stop business then we have invested many millions of dollars in the country so how do we take out this money the government said okay go to the court and
in India most optimistically it requires around 20 years to solve an issue 20
 this is one issue which is called inefficient judicial system for example in China there is another part
of inefficient using system where there is an example of of this company McDonald so McDonald in Beijing had had
a store there premier store in front o the Forbidden City and then li kai-shing who is very powerful in Hong Kong and who has very good friends in the Politburo of China wanted that space for his hotel for his for his office space
so McDonald said we are a multinational company we have signed the contract and we are in this place so we will move so they went to the court and of course what would the code say in China the code would say that yes there is a contract but the government is the real owner of the place so the government can tell you to leave whenever they want and so that leave and today if you visit Beijing you will see Li cushing’s whole
space with office space and higher just in front of the Forbidden City so this is misguided regulation which is lengthy cause of market failure and lack of proper proper IPR rules which is intellectual property right and difficult and different labor laws ainteresting point is why different labo laws or difficult labor laws because this countries which is speaking about do not have usually any social security
systm so if you are fired or if you do not have a job there is no way that you can earn money for example in India there is no Social Security system in China very minor Social Security system in Brazil anyone from Brazil not no one but again very limited social security system and this makes labor laws very difficult so that you can difficult to hire and also difficult to fire so when you have this setup it is
difficult in terms of energy markets having said the stage there was a repor of brick have you read the report so
that I can go at will first it was first came out in 1993 so bric is Brazil Russia India China and goldman sachs got this report out where they
said that for the next 50 years this company is this countries would be a much larger force in the world of economic if this goes right in less than 40 years the BRIC so all these four countries would overtake the g6 countries there is a issue about why g6 and white not g7 but Goldman Sachs thought that g6 would be better and said that by 2025 they could account for half the size of g6 which is just around the
corner another 15 years which means that all this countries the BRIC countries would overtake the g6 and lastly the shift in GDP related to the g6 take play steadily over the time but most dramatic is in the first 30 years which means that the first 10 years is already done
so the next 20 years will be more dramatic than the first 30 years and why
is this so because the countries China and India might have which they perceive or which they think there might have a GDP which is equivalent or equal to that of the developed nations so I will do a small calculation for you probably you can understand why they say this and wh this is so difficult to absorb so what is the what would be a population of India today so India is 1.2 billion China 1.3 million and what would be 1 billion equal to how many millions [Music] thousand million what would be India is per capita income today around $1,500 what would be India spark a China’s per
capita today so when you are young you had a formula ike this amount is equal to principal into 1 plus R by T know R by do you
remember this formula so what is the growth of India and China around 8 to 9 percent okay so I have to a I have a 1
 plus 8 to 9% over time so what is T that means it will double in 3-0 years is really money doubles in 14 years right now money doubles in five
years if it is 14 percent interest so you keep the 100 rupee 100 euro in the bank for 100 rupees or $100 t becomes 200 in 5 years if it is 14% compound interest and here we are talking about 8 to 9 percent
so let us say at time is equal to around years so in how many years so what is the average GDP of developed nations around $30,000 so when we will 1500 become thirty thousand and three thousand becomes 30 thousand sorry you have calculate three thousand in eight
years become six thousand in 16 years become twelve in another eight years 24 years become 24 another idea thirty two years become four day too much so 24 and half let us say so how many years this one
thirty-six eight only eight more so in 36 years 2.6 billion people would on
this much money which means wha this is how much money compared to France what is the population Germany full of Europe what is the growth rate – is a 1 percent average so 50 will become how much 55
maximum into now you are 30 at that age
at that point probably 50 the growth happens so this is 1/4 or 1/5 so who love Europe would have this amount of
money and India would have 1.3 billion probably it will be more than 1.3 billion and China would be more / 1 1 2
billion and this will be the scenario so why they are saying that because they’re saying that the largest economies in the
world maybe longer the richest higher growth may lead to higher returns an increase demand for capital and rising
incomes may also see this economies move
through a sweet spot for example this year the largest number of millionaires is already in Asia so US and Europe have
been already surpassed as today’s advanced economies become a shrinking part of the world economy the
accompanying shifts in spending could provide significant growth opportunities and that is why we only talk about
 emerging markets today why one way to understand this is because the growth is here and in Lafarge what did we say we
 said how is value created you did the large case right so how is value created
  profit plus the CEO said in two so the multiplication of the addition is basically what creates the value so if and probably but if you are a very big company for a very large company and you have no growth what will happen to that company large company no growth large
company no growth what will you do with that company what will happen CS competition go ahead what will happen there will be takeover why because it is not growing but it is large so someone might want to take it over and do something else with that company if you are very small and very good what will
 happen also you will be acquired so the question is how do you manage this together is what we saw in the fudge which means that the growth was an
 imperative if you do not grow someone will acquire if you stay stagnant and you are small and very good someone will acquire so the only way to have is both
so that is what they are saying is wit the shrinking part of the world economy most of the companies would try to find sweet spots which are small companies orbig companies in this part of the world because the growth is happening here and not in the old economy so what will
happen is this is how it looks like what they said is this is China what taking this ountry’s so China is already overtaken UK already overtaken gyppojim
Oni this year they were took Japan this is 2015 and we are today at 2010 so already it is going so fast that means what they projected is now behind which means that it is growing faster so India would would overtake Italy would.
overtake France would overtake Germany would overtake Japan within this area if you see our our target is 13 d for india 36 years so 2010 plus 36 is around 2046 but this they tour in 1993 so seven years have gone by I think can you see okay you see if there is camp if there are cameras such a quiet class it is nice no you do not have to say stop speaking everyone is attentive good okay so what is happening so 2015 already ten years already means five years before and f24
India will cross Japan in 2032 so basically already it is five years ahead of time so basically it will be 2.2 ithin this it will be 2025 so
another projection would be larger GDP when together 2025 BRIC economies would be hlf by 2040 so we said 28 plus 10
two days 2010 plus 28 is 2038 so they are they are projecting to the 2040 and
if yoqu see the largest economies in 2050 which is what we predict for India 36plus 1046 is first is China then in the US and then in India this is what brick
analyzed and spoke about after much research which was one of the highest downloaded report in the history of
goldmn sachs so this is India and thi is China the red one and India is the green one also some projections in China what takes the G 3 kz6 around 2030 that iswhat we say 2028 plus 10 around 30 but of course that is if the growth is at 9% it will create more and more energy for
for growth in within the time period and India would be around 2040 or 2044 that is 36 plus ten thirty six plus seve years which is 2040 and if you see
India’s rapid growth potential is here whereas this is China and that is India but India is far lesser than China because China started the liberalisation policy when but this is an important concept liberalization what is liberalisation opening of the economy so China started in nineteen 70s 70s but 78 and India started 1991 so
China is around 12 to 13 years ahead of India in liberalization so what is relaton mean opening up what is opening up mean allowing foreign direct
 nvestment to come in in different sectors when this happens how countries get richer someone said something a little
bit before about you said about industrialization and about manufacturing versus services so usually what happens is that the growth story happens in a country is agriculture first people are interested in agriculture and then there is an industrial revolution so they start manufacturing and when they have manufactured much they move from manufacturing to services for less say from the UK why UK do not have any manufacturing companies anymore all have been sold and what UK main industry in UK is today finance and banking main industry in most developed nations for example Japan of course they have manufacturing but again of more again it would be like let us say 45 or 45 35 10 or 45 35 20 would be the ratio of Agriculture would be a ratio of services manufacturing and agriculture so as a crude example assuming the channel GDP
growth continued to grow at 8% so they have caught they have targeted 8% but today China is more than 9% continuously next few decades would lead to prediction that China’s economy would be 3 times larger than the US in US dollar terms and if Japan if you see in 1960 and 70 Japan was growing at this stage in seventeen eighty five percent eighty to ninety four percent and ninety to 2000 stagnation and this is a discussion that no one has able to solve ma people have given many theories why Japan is stagnating it is called
stagflation which means that there is less of inflation there is some inflation but is stagnant huge amount of reserves but they cannot
utilize the reserves to increase money an interesting point here if you have money in the let us say if you have plenty of gold ornaments in your locker what does it mean for the economy very good so you are keeping money out of the flo so if you have plenty of money cash in your vault what does it mean it means it’s outside the economy it is called black money why is called black money one way to understand that is it is not
counted for in the economy now that is called igh velocity money which means that the more money circulates it’s economics microeconomics the more money circulates the big the larger it becomes so for Japan it’s a big issue because they are huge amount what is the amount thirteen trillion I think thirteen trillion yen in the post office only and then similar amount i the bank but they do not know where to invest they can invest abroad but this money is not generating any funds and this is a big question which may
economize social scientists have trie to argue that why Japan is not growing at the rate that it should have grown before so one one precursor to this
question is can China and India become like Japan so some people who do not want China and India to become this would like to say they can also stop
  some people would also say that there will be fourth world war or third world war forth is little a third before thi third world over and this could not happen some people would say that oka becaue both China and India more so this economy is around 30% is in agriculture so it depends on the rainfall so if there is too much of rainfall what will happen floods if there is less tranform droughts so again
the economy will not grow at the
percentage that we want them to grow
which is at eight to nine percent so these are all the issues that they have already taken into account and said that these are the functions of the model and of course there is a big issue of labor force which means that where will the people who will work in the next generation will come from so if you see everyone is declining Brazil is declining Russia is declining only India is less declining than the rest why is China also declinng anyone one-child policy for so long hich means that they have controlled by some way which is an autocratic way of growth so this is
China and this is India so China Indi is also declining but at a much lesser rate whereas projected population growth  rate this is Shannon this is India so
India will have more population than China in the next 10 to 20 years so rational for emerging markets which means that there is a market potential I
 won’t go into the details of this graph but that is a market potential and that is country risk and of course companies would like to understand this together
to say why they would like to go into this market so the bigger the circle th bigger it is lucrative for a company to go and this is only for only for company only for companies which are which ar food drink and tobacco business but if you see also rationale for emerging
market would be it has time for around two years to break-even also more than five years to achieve return on
investment also more than two years to
have significant Abeyta before they can come out so which means that these markets are not so easy as we think when
we think that this to do business in following that what some companies would
like to do or some companies did before is having is having a scope or having a way to identify emerging markets as business parameters which means that all
emerging markets are the same that is
why the BRIC report why they should havea big report they should have a Brazil Russia report in the report channel
report and within India there are so much of diversity within China there is so much of diversity but we group them into emerging markets and some companies thought and did mistakes what are those mistakes how not to grow
in emerging market which means that yo should never do that today in emerging market one set on products because with internet anyone can know
which product is in the market so if you try to sell old products they will disrd you or they will say that you are thinking that this market is not
important for you than other markets sell existing products with reduced functionality which means that you are trying to cash on on cost but there
 could be people as we said in in our emerging market definition that there might be people who have the who can
afford this amount of money but you do not kow accept a lower product quality which means that you launch a Mercedes
s-class three five zero series here and then you send to India let us say Mercedes s-class one zero series so people would say why is this so use old product technology to develop ocol products which is again people would question because this markets are becoming more and more important and it
no major differences between and within emerging market countries which we just said an interesting story in in a small city in in India in the north part of
the country Iran Javad karana bath is in the middle and then in the western part the small the city
column at the bath so Mercedes and BMW are ow very focused in markets like
India nd China so they so there are small and medium-sized enterprises who have now huge amount of money so one day I do not know why it came out in the
news that in along the bath 100 small and medium-sized business guys came together they usually are in a club they
usually go out to play golf together but they are competitors anyways but they all came together and said that we would buy 100 cars the top range Mercedes orBMW and which company is going to give me 20 percent discount so what you ar the international manager in India right
and you have an opportunity of selling the latest brand 100 hundred units at one go so what will you do and it is the
latest model it is not the previous part yes it is not you sure but I want to sell 100 what would you do so you say no
right in Norway what would you do Germany not sell in the US do not know in Japan in France give some gifts but
do not reduce the price so exactly the MW said no we cannot give this discount Merced he said yes and the sold 100
those who bought Mercedes when they start when they wanted to pay they couldn’t pay because the Mercedes system
would not take a 20% discount because they have never had a 20% discount in the history after along the bath other baths id the same thing again 100 people 100 small and medium-sized enterprises asked for one day discount BMW said not possible Merced he said what yes against 100 yesterday search BMW in India or Mercedes in India today no one is having it their computers ope is good sign but if you search yesterday another city I think I do not remember
the city but it is probably wrong about
BMW sold 100 at 20 percent discount in one go what would be how many amount how many units will you sell in a country at a range of 100 thousand euros per unit how many are here when you go for your consultin interview this is a question you know how many telephone booths are there in
Paris so how do you analyze that how many telephone booths are there impacts okay so you how many on this suppose you have twenty in one on this
moreou take an assumption how many street corners are there so you go on taking assumptions and assumptions might
be wrong but at least you can come to number but if I say how many telephone booths use or how do I answer right so
here also you take assumption what do you think in a country India because he 100 housand right is huge amount of
money five thousand cars so this is your homework for next day just check how
 many units are sold in a country in Singapore how many units a soul in Paris how many just a figure and you can com
to that figure for example in France you can come to that figure let us say how many Renault pshoo and si throw-in are
sold in France how do you come to that figure so 10 years your car gets obsolete and then how many people have it is there Cammi said we have 65
million people how many people what percentage of people have cars in France ninety percent right yes eighty to
ninety percent people say 80 percent of let us say average 80 percent of 65 million would be 50 million say if it’s 50 million and what is the age profile of this 50 million growth population growth is less than 1 percent or 1 percent so this is mainly around the age
of 40 44 so that means they have already
used 10 years so how many three four million cars so but it’s family so divided by three or four so ten million so this is how we calculate I’m jut giving you an indication so if you see one hundred is probably six months sale so maximum will sell three hundred units in this category and you can sell in one day one hundred so this is a new model that has business we just come up in this year no one understood this model before so it requires a
dedicated approach so if you are interaction manager it is very difficult to understand this and do take a decision
but once others have taken a decisio you want to jump on the bandwagon and that is why dedicated approach is needed for example global product if you have a product you can sell it at without any local adaptation which is the high-end maret global product happy to local
needs
  Micke segments same volume potential you can sell global global product which has innovations launched in emerging markets which is a potential market coverage for example decorative light bulbs again you can sell and local market product total
market coverage let a mixer grinder like small utensils you can sell but these are to be adapted for the local market for example Philips try to sell mixer
grinder in India do you think the mixer
grinder that you sell in Europe would be suitable for India no why no first you do not need the same thing then you use it every day in Europe do you use mixer
grinder every day in India they us every day so it has to be much harder it has to be much more power it has to be durable it has to be adaptable and this
which companies when they find probably they have to think and innovate and reduce that for that market why they
have to produce for that market how many people would buy mixer grinder in India number everyone means so I have to take
an India class now India is a poor country 35% of the population is below theoday twenty five twenty five percent is below the poverty line which means that they cannot eat one meal a day which means that 250 million you d not count after that there is a family which is around 100 150 200 million and
then 300 million would be middle class and then 100 million would be the upper class and the super-rich would be 10
million or 15 million so you are talking about a 300 million market so compared
to Europe 300 million means most of continental Europe so if you are not investing in
that market with new products where will you invest so EMS our new market space
and is very important that one thinks  about this market space as a new market space and invest there so some challenges opportunities identifications
build plan and execute resourcing and stuffing managing synergies and priority setting is very important when you do something on emerging market of course neeor different governance models are required because there is the difference
between we talked about this before which case do we talk about conflict
headquarter versus subsidiary KFC very good so M requires again co-creation whic is a discussion between the company and the people who would like to
buy that a very interesting slide by Boston Consulting Group in India if you see which is the youngest country in the world South Africa which is the oldest Japan after that is Germany UK France so going by this there are 350 million citizens which are under age of 15 so if you want to have
  products made for them made for this population which is the market if you want to make products which are for senior citizens which is your market if
you want to make products for the young which is the market so this is what they try to analyze and also they try to
analyze where is the population which is which can travel and which can which is excess population which can work so this is the model which they have come up it is the potential workforce surplus is calculated in the ratio of workin
population age group between 59 59 to the total population India will have around 47 million people in the working age population by 2020 compared to today
well France will have a deficit of 3 Venus all these are – so and all the yellows are just about okay for them to manage so if you have this why is China – 10 we said this before because of single Jai and in 2020 after 2020 so logically Boston Consulting India’s thinks that this people would move to different countries because you have more know people who will work in those countries of course this this means that the the cowork means not I take high of
course it means some people will do that but of course they mean that the lower rung category of workers will be from
this type of countries yes why is it s
lowr he US – 17 u.s. is a country which has the highest probably the highest number of imrants and immigration policies are very liberal why because of this Japan yes in France what is the cap on immigration there i a cap you wouldn’t you cannot come to Japan I cannot come to France to work just like that they control immigratio in Japan the most difficult you cannot have first two passports you cannot marry a Japanese just to change passports you can have only one type of visa which means that is the interesting story the first time I went to Japan in 2003 I was in a party did I tell you the
 tory I was in a ASEC party where they  invited a lot of ASIC friends and a guy came and asked me are you a kook or i IT professional in 2003 Japan France for
Japanese people Indians meant either a kook or IT professional so this time I aske the same question that do you think I am a cook or a writer or you are from IIT because now with more discussion they know some terminology like IIT is like I am that they can be engineers from India because a very close country and it is difficult country different country entirely different from the rest of the world so very low immigration very low so it is ms 9 million and the more the age the difficult it becomes for Japanese people so I think I stop here and we take a
break and then we come back and talk about the cases that we have four cases
will do

The challenge of making it happen l London Business School

good afternoon and the very first thing to say what a pleasure it is to see a lot of familiar faces for those of you who’d not met me before I’ll just say a little bit about my own my own background and and I was reminded of this because I was recently at a 30-year
reunion from my own MBA program 30 years and what I did after finishing my MBA in the US was to follow a well-trodden pat into strategy consulting are there any strategy consultants current ones past and reformed ones here in the room apart
from me we’ve got we’ve got a number of a number of strategy sinners or saints
here in the room on the consulting side what a lot of consultants of course do after a while is to roll up their sleeves and move across the Great Divide and instead of selling advice and become buyers of advice I moved into industry its group strategy director for a large multinational firm and I have to say i  was the perfect opportunity to get my revenge on my former colleague from the
Boston Consulting Group’s it happened who are desperate to sell me very high-priced advice which I was able to beat down ruthlessly and then and then in more recent times and more recent times I’d been here with with all of you as a strategy professor here at here at
london business school now when we come back to what strategy should be about at least on a good day it should be all
around the question what next and what we would love as strategists would be able to realize those hopes riding the next wave of performance or even making that wave and we’d also like to be able to banish those fears and fundamentally
that’s the central question that we’re looking to address as strategy people back in the day and what strategy people did was very much focused on formulating strategy it was very much around the the great strategic idea the answer to the question what are we going to do my
colleagues have kept in touch with at BCG at boston consulting group now say that what we called in in the day
years ago the strategy is now just the proposal it’s now just the proposal you have to do the work they were saying in order to get the
work and because the answer to the question where will advantage come from how will we banish those fears and
realize the hopes is perhaps less now to do with the way in which we formulate strategy and more down to the way in
 which we execute execute which is the theme I hope we can explore but let’s personalize it because given that I’ve spent my entire career pretty much 30 years of it in the strategy field I feel
pretty strongly about strategy questions and but what about all of us for example one way or another how much time do an of us in the room currently spend on anything to do with strategy how many of
us would say we spend a lot of our time formulating strategy show that show of hands very interesting very interesting for a strategy professor who might have been teaching lots of good courses on strategy formulation that looked to me like how many hands went up and again it was around a loaded question what does  lot of time mean but I don’t think we had more than a dozen hands going up how
many of us in the room spent a lot of our time executing strategy show of hands now look around so that does that
does rather point doesn’t it to what should be the balance in the curriculum in other words emphasis on the what yes twelve people put their hands up but when we come back to the how that’s universal around the room and over the next five years looking ahead how many
of us would expect to spend less time on anything to do with strategy more time  show of hands and do you expect strategy
to get easier or harder as you look ahead who’d say why why who’d like Church would like to kick us off why harder complexity
complexity if we define it is all about interconnectedness more connections it’s become a much more connected world on
multiple dimensions therefore much more complex I do a lot of work with some of the larger global professional service
firms but also in the london busines school context with them arranged a firm’s large small who come through our
doors on our executive education programs and pretty much universally the answer to the question will what got u here get us there is no because of the way in which context has been changin how many of us in the room enjoy sailin we have any sailors who got a lot of sailors excellent so what’s happening in the picture we’ve got the spinnaker up and we would only put the spinnaker up
 if we had a good steady relatively gentle tailwind and again without wanting to Trevor do the metaphor it may
be that these are the conditions in which a number of us a number of our leaders number of our organizations came of age there’s an economist that a number of you will have come across
Mervyn King and who is running the Bank of England walls deputy governor wa part running the Bank of England who
 talked about the Great Moderation and the Great Moderation according to Mervyn was the period which began in roughly
  and ran for nearly two decades in which measures of volatility by just about every count got greatly compressed in other words and we were finding that there was the same steady wind behind all of our boats and we could see ou into the distance in this picture
 because it’s rather a nice day of course then the weather changed didn’t it how many of us believe that term gentle
tail winds are about to return that’ called a rhetorical question my G you have to be very very careful with forecasts and I can’t resist here
stealing a line from a very good friend and colleague of mine who i’m sure man of you know andrew scott macro economist
who indeed worked very closely with Mervyn King at the time the notion of the great moderations being formulated and and some of you may have been been been taught by Andrew the three rules of  forecasting rule number one if you make a forecast never give a number you can say it’s going to go up or it’ll go down if you give a number you never give  date because one day you’ll be proved
right whatever you said this is sometimes called the stock clock theory of forecasting and we’ve seen a lot of use of that made recently by British
politicians and the third rule of forecasting is if you give a number and a date then never come back now in your organization’s i’m sure you’ll talk about a range of mega trends which are shaping the future and of course the picture in emerging markets which many of us would have been lightly optimistic about as drivers of growth a few years back looks looks rather rocky at the moment but it would be ridiculous to say that there’s no Headroom for growth’s left in China India and Brazil it’s m more a question of when we see the
 return and but of course it’s going to be a very rocky ride isn’t it we’re not going to be looking at smooth patterns of growth in emerging markets there’ll be many capacity bottlenecks it’s goin to be a stop go process or a go stop go
back go forward process in other words we’re looking at a pattern of growth looking ahead but probably highly disruptive growth we see social transformation this is a McKinsey forecast looking at a more than doubling of what they call the global middle
clas and we could continue to extend the list but fundamentally all of those we could regard as being drivers of growth but at the same time drivers of growth and disruption there’s an interesting work that’s been done at Harvard on volatility looking at the dispersion of
profitability between firms in given sectors across cycles and what stands out is what we might intuitively expect
 which is to say that in the era of th Great Moderation the Great Moderation when there was the gentle wind coming
from behind propelling all boats pret much evenly the variance of profitability became very low in other
words the gap between winners and losers in given sectors became much less than in periods of high volatility higher volatility much more dispersion of profitability much bigger gap between the winners and the losers all around
the opportunities and threats and who’s  going to seize them or avoid them first and fastest so the holy grail of strategy was always sustainable competitive advantage and what’s the issue here not that competitive
advantage is irrelevant but that much of what we used to rely on if we come back to some of the classic language of strategy we talked about the the ability to succeed because we create value we capture value at the same time and this
is suggesting that the rules the value capture and value creation are going to be changing much faster so a given
competitive advantage will not be to the same extent of rock on which we can build our whole corporate edifice a lot
of the work I’m doing with professional service loans is exactly around this which is welcome to a different world welcome to a different world we may as Magic Circle firms in law have felt that we had a rock-solid advantage customer lock in but in fact even the nature of what the legal sector is is starting to converge convergence volatility which those of you who put your hands up have been dealing with and for many a year and also now come we’ll write to the 4 for all of us sustainable competitive advantage I think we now have to talk
about transient competitive advantage so the issue then is how we renew so back to the sailing conditions where’s the
wind coming from now over the last three
plus years we’ve been running a research initiative which is also a learning initiative on where advantage might lie
in terms of how we how we execute so we run a one-week executive open program we typically take about 30 senior middle managers at time and as well as runnin a course we also collect data what we do is to ask each participant ahead of time
ahead of time to carry out a 360-degree survey on effectively on execution in their own organization around some
themes which I’ll share with you very shortly so effectively this is allowing us to identify execution bottlenecks to see what patterns can be seen across different sectors looking at what might make it really difficult in this more turbulent world to get our crew to move fast across the deck of that boat and pick up the sounds of the waves breaking on the rocks in the distance from the old days there are some myths or let’s say biases where we’re going to be kinder in strategy execution which we believe need to be countered the first myth that we are looking to tackle is the idea that execution is really about
vertical alignment so here’s the golden
thread where we define the strategy the vision if you like it gets embedded in the plan and we would then define kpi’s individual and team objectives and then we don’t provide some feedback on performance does anyone lived in an execution model of this kind now let’s
let’s be clear there is a place for vertical alignment and what we’re talking about here is undue emphasis in
one organization I work with they talk about cascading the strategy if you ever heard that term cascading the strategy I find it’s very interesting to examine these metaphors that we use in business life what in real life as a cascade it’s a waterfall what direction does the water go in and if you’re standing underneath the   waterfall you get very wet and rather annoyed so so immediately there’s questions about reversal of the flow but.
there is a such a strong bias in so many organizations towards this and what we believe is that it comes from an underlying view of hierarchy because if we think of a firm as a hierarchy then very naturally we’ll think of executions vertical alignment because we’ll have
been relying essentially on organization  design to do the job for us now we’ve already identified one concern one concern which is this is all one way but what else might be an immediate concern that leaps out at us as we look at this
what’s missing yeah so here we’re asking questions about horizontal coordination how how are we making those links across not just the links down the vertica chain which starts to be crucial doesn’t it if we’re looking to create solutions which typically involve connecting
different product and service arenas it starts to be crucial for innovation which typically is about boundary crossing and indeed if we’re if we’re missing horizontal coordination at that level then we may find that our ability for example to work with others become severely limited but using a different lens we asked ourselves what would it be
like if we saw the organization as being predicated not so much on power but on commitments promises and those what you’ve got here on the screen is simply download from Facebook you can plot your map of r elationships as Facebook would see them pretty easily any relationship that has any meaning carries with it some degree of commitment which is about promises and it’s about promises that bring about trust and it could well be that the crucial carrier of performance commitments in our organization have very little to do with
the formal hierarchy and of course those commitments would go beyond firm boundaries and we’d already touched on this how many of us in the room know a RM based in Cambridge I find us a fascinating organization it’s one of the UK’s rather rare technology success
stories  if you have an iphone or a samsung galaxy or any handheld device inside its you will have a RM technology effectively a RM
low power consumption so you don’t have o have one of those huge batteries that you see in movies about mobile phones from the 1980s and your phone doesn’t
burst into flames as it might with high power consumption so a RM indeed d create these designs but it goes much those designs create and manage an ecosystem and it’s an ecosystem which in many cases involves no transactions no money is changing hands however the
effective coordination and cooperation of those ecosystem members is absolutely critical for a RM success and but none of them actually work for a RM in other words we’ve moved beyond if you like  hierarchical model to one which is about an influence so the OEMs might for
example be Apple and so then the question would be just how good a job are we doing at the horizontal dimension of alignment not just within our organization but beyond its walls because I’d argue that many of us if we’re going to succeed in this world of
transient competitive advantage will indeed need to be highly effective in working swiftly with others outside our own boundaries so we’d mentioned that everyone coming on that program executing strategy for results completes -degree survey and one of the questions is who can I rely on who delivers the goods I can rely on X to do what he or she says they will all of the time or most of the time and it turns out that people can rely on their boss about eighty-five percent of the time direc reports about 83% probably because they
wouldn’t stay direct reports so very long if the school is rather lower than this but then when we come to colleagues and we’re talking here about colleagues in other units and partners partners meaning partner organizations oops then where am I talking we’re talking about
some a much lower degree of reliability now just stress this is aggregate data and it starts to get even more interesting when you when you break it down when you break it down by sector and by geography but it’s coming out of roughly now eight thousand respondents from about some 300 300 companies and if we do need horizontal alignment this starts to raise some very important questions in terms of what we’re doing or not doing now and from our own personal experience what happens when we can’t rely on our colleagues DIY does that ring bells around the room and now what else might we do you’re not getting any cooperation from him and it’s a crucial project and you know you’re
going to be judged on the success of that project he doesn’t elec for you what would you do talk to his boss ah right so this we call escalation escalation and which in some organizations seems to become a primary strategy execution tool for that reason so as we escalate and to his boss then you’re going to escalate to her boss presumably and then they’ll escalate to their bosses and then life in th boardroom is going to start to get really depressing because what we’ll be doing up there in the boardroom on the executive committee is dealing with these endless
endless escalations and a bad day wh 1we might do in order to deal with this is to say I’ve had enough of the escalations so now we’re going to have a proper plan to deal with it which makes it absolutely clear what everyone’s job is and what they’re expected to contribute the problem I believe the correct term quote from Count von malka  who reformed the Prussian army and is no plan and survives first contact with the
 enemy and so again we won’t be able to address this by relying on the plan wil we so then the question might go further which is what is fundamentally our xecution challenge and this we believe is one of the major sources of confusion and which is to say in some cases the
important challenge is coordinatin across units but not always for example  if we’re trying to do a turnaround
disaggregation may be very important it’s no coincidence that p houses private equity houses that essentially look to do turnarounds look to keep units very separate not least because eventually we want to sell them and we don’t want to have created a tangled web which will make it extraordinarily difficult to unplug an invested business the question there is as we coordinate more effectively across units do we also then become somewhat less flexible in terms of being able to adapt to shifting circumstances so one of the key is which of these is going to
questionb be most important because all of them  are in fact intention it’s not going to be possible realistically at a given point in time to be a superstar on al three of those dimensions it could b that the balance shifts over time nokia not the old nokia but the new nokia and
the old nokia siemens networks as it were and the leadership challenge there was to call the change which is to say the execution priority has been durin the darkest days of Nokia’s underperformance has been indeed all about vertical alignment but now now we’ve done the alcatel deal nd what we’re looking to do is to shift gear because coordination across what we’ve created with alcatel-lucent the solutions might we might be providing and has become the crucial piece so for any of us in the room it might be worth keeping in mind that question what is might we see that shifting as we look
ahead here are a few more myths the third one might strike you as od because a lot of organizations put hugefforts in communicating strategy one
senior middle manager of a company will be nameless said actually he needs to understand the strategy said I need to understand the strategy but it’s my job
not just pass on the PowerPoint it’s m job to translate the strategy into a set of executable priorities because the
issue is not have I seen the bubble charts and the two-by-two matrices nor is it about some level of understanding
about how we’re here to make the world a better place important as that is from the standpoint of emotional bayan but my
question if you want me to execute your strategies just what is it that you want me to do and why does it matter and who else does it matter to so in other words if wecoming back to the question of coordination the horizontal coordination again back to what you want me to do who
do you really want me to do it with so this would then come back to the them of priorities let’s say priorities ather than the strategy and the organization’s we were working with pretty much all have employee engagement surveys and often the employee engagement surveys have something like what we see in the top box here do yo agrewith the statement I am clear on the firm’s top priorities and then wha we find from the sample is tha eighty-four percent of managers agre with that statement we asked the same managers to list the company’s five top priorities actually was the priorities for their own unit less than half of two of half a direc reports could list two of the five this by the way might be a very interesting
exercise for any of us to carry out because even before we get to the how do you want me to do it and with whom I’ just what might those priorities be and without wanting to to be awfully depressing and we kind of them made it a little bit easier rather than top five
how many of you can get the top three and again in this sample of now eight thousand people or thereabouts– coming
from some illustrious companies which might even be represented in this room who knows we were finding that if you
just made it one priority you’d get a somewhat higher hit rate and you saw on the slide a little earlier that rather forbidding German character count font malka who reformed the Prussian army after a disastrous defeat at the hands of the French who are they who are the
French people here in the room excellent so so this was the Battle of yenna the Battle of Vienna and you have the Pont
yenna by the Eiffel Tower I believe and this is where Napoleon defeated the best army in Europe the Prussians because
they were they the best trend they could march in time better than any other army they could shoot more accurately they
 were the best but they were smashed and in the in the examination of the ashes that followed an insight which is a very
important insight not just for military history buffs but in this context around the quality of commitment was that term
the Prussian army had been trained very much on the basis of what Bob Mollica called be failed static Befehl
 translates from the German as an order be felled stuck deep so the notion was that you’d be given an order and you’d pass it down the line and the problem hen arises in the fog of war when the chain of command is broken as a sensible soldier what you do when no more orders are coming you stop you wait you wait so the question was could we move in terms of the nature of the commitment
was being asked from biffle’s tactic t after Ike’s tactic which when the a frog would be much more defined as than element of command in it but it’s the
 level of purpose it’s providing the reason why so if we understand the reason why and if we have been trained to understand the reason why then when
the chain of command is broken what might we be able to do think think and adapt also we learn the skill of not cluttering our subordinates with too many commands in other words we be able to ensure a much better signal-to-noise ratio and those reforms around our strat
actic were fundamental in re-energizing that particular organization with
somewhat mixed blessings and some decades later of course but it would come back again for us to they question when we’re talking of priorities do we have an understanding of the what and are we providing some tools for the ho and have we also address the why because let’s be clear in turbulent environments we’re not going to get it right all the time are we but what we do want is to have large numbers of people assuming that our organization has large numbers
 of people or our ecosystem contains large number of people making more or less the right decisions most of the
 time and given the challenges o turbulence if we can pull that one off then we will have built a very powerful and much more sustainable source of
 competitive advantage now here’s a fourth miss sometimes execution I’ve found gets confused with operational exceence operational excellence is
doing the thing right but as well as doing the thing right there’s the question of doing the right thing doing the right thing and which brings us into
 the theme of resource allocation and this chart may be a bit of a site test for those of you at the back but it’s a summary of what to me at least is very
 interesting where done by Steven Holl at mckinsey looking at the implications of dynamically allocating resources from year to year
 or simply sitting on your hands as a resource allocator so the comparison is to do with the degree to which your
 allocation of capex capital expenditure is essentially the same as what you’v got last year if that’s the case th correlation index will be up at one the
lower it is on that chart the more we find that you won’t necessarily have the resources that you had allocated last year this is about capital spending but
it could be about IT and it could be about talent and from this survey which is called how to put your money wher your strategy is and the evidence is
 that if you are not a dynamic resource allocator then your performance measured here is TS our total shareholder returns is likely to suffer so not surprising as new opportunities and new threats emerge the question again is you know are we  biting the bullet in terms of having the
tough onversations about resource reallocation because again this is a line taken from Steven in many companies
investments like war which is to say it’s easy to start one and in their survey in the McKenzie survey typically middle managers said not much of a problem
getting hold of resources particularly if we built up a bank o credibility over chat over time but what is the problem with what it may be easy to start one but very difficult to get out of one so here was the crucial question around exiting too slowly or struggling to exit and it’s not just about the waste of resources it’s also about the emotional wear and tear so you’ve got some initiative which should have been painlessly put to sleep years
ago but it’s someone’s baby and you’re the person who’s now got to say I’m sorry it’s an ugly bear b ch again again starts to come down
to the kind of discipline that we’re going to need that we’re going to need as that as that Jam portfolio of opportunities new opportunities and new dangers and starts to shift now performance culture how many of us how many of us in the room would like to have a performance culture in their
organizations so we reward performance show of hands and we like that because we want people to score those goals.
don’t we if the challenge is fundamentally vertical alignment vertical alignment then what we typically call the performance culture
where we’re rewarding individual performance down the hierarchy could make perfect sense but what we found again in our survey in our execution
survey with some disturbing results so for example considering adaptation of the eight roughly 8,000 managers in the
survey more than half were saying that experimentation and failure had hurt their career at least to some degree that ring bells then when it comes down to coordination fifteen percent was saying those issues got addressed promptly if it hit their numbers but otherwise if you want to follow the gypsies warning get your own job done first before you start collaborating
with others and then two-thirds egardless by the way of whether or not his was identified as the challenge or that but two-thirds of the people in the sample was saying that individual performance was the top driver of promotion decisions so again we would  want to come back to the classic
question what are we really seeking to achieve then what are we really seekingcto meaure then what we’re reallcseeking to reward here’s the final oneccthe problemcyou don’t you don’t what we’re after here is identifying what we’ve beenccalling the distributed leaders in the organization’s of those who are coming
on this program and taking the survey and I like I like the last one Steve Jobs this test which is if you are leaving for a new company and could take
a hundred people from your current.
company who would they be the importance of this is that the distributive leaders back to that web that network of
commitments are those who are commandin the key nodes they’re often the cross pollinate as if we’re talking about the
 translation of the strategy into executable priorities they will very often be those who are doing that they will be the people who in factor effectively collaborating with other distributed leaders across your organization if we’ve got the wash and
the why and the how of the priority is clear so again where we might find once more in a highly turbulent environment
execution falling down is where we’ve simply looked at the organogram from the
top rather than identifying who were the holders not necessarily of organizational power from a structural sense but who are the holders of influence so so just in summary and if we’re if we’re looking at the relatively new world which is not a new world for many of you in the tech sector where
volatility and uncertainty and complexity ambiguity the VUCA world has been around for a while but more and
more of us I believe we’re not doing so already and we’ll have to ask ourselves just to what extent are we building an
execution advantage by moving from wha may have served us perfectly well when we had the wind behind us and the spinnaker on our boat up and to what’s now going to service I hope in a world that’s much more much more turbulent i it is a world that we’ve got t discolour progressively rather than
thinking about the linear approach to strategy my colleague Don done Sal talks
about replacing lines with loops and the the notion of this jean-luc is that the first part of it is about making sense making sense of an
ambiguous situation then from making sense the question is making choices
what are we going to do not do what we’re going to stop doing from choice we come to commitment which is all about the tough discipline that means that the
choice we’ve actually made really has some teeth what do we have to do with
the top left close the loop so this is where we’re making revisions and the key here the key here to my mind and this is back to the leadership challenge is that these are very different conversations they’re very different conversations let’s remember unless we’re at the sharp edge in our organizations where we’re physically coding software or using screwdrivers and hammers the only tools we have our words when we’re making choices and this is where we want t have a debate a debate with people taking up a position and arguing forage
and defending it when we want to make it happe about what’s the nature of your commitment is there a good promise happening here conversely is there a good ask the tone when we’re making revisions the wheels have come off the wagon didn’t work out as expected what’s the worst thing we can do at that point the blame game the blame game way bac and the boston consulting group where i worked at a tool that they call the experience curve and the notion was that as you gained experience you’d improve on cost or on technological discovery you’d move down the experience curve but
if you indulged in the blame game wha would be the slope of the experience curve you’ll be absolutely flat becaus it’d been no learning and therefore no competitive advantage that the final point is really this when we come back to success is it about the hand we had dealt worst about the way we play the hand and the sessions being them really pushing very hard for the way we play the hand to be the source of competitive advantage rather than market position the resource-based view that you took in in your core strategy course at lbs so i hope i hope this has been useful and interesting and i have to say it’s been  a real pleasure to reconnect wonderfulto have you back

MBA Islamic Finance – Accredited Online Islamic Finance Degree | AIMS UK

you are familiar with the word Islamic banking but what most wants to know is where it came from is Islamic banking really Islamic and was
there a concept of banking at the time of Prophet Muhammad peace be upon him in this video we are going to answer all these questions plus we will give you a short overview of growing demand of present Islamic finance industry and if you are a finance professional why
should you consider learning Islamic finance and why aims mba in islamic
 

banking and finance is a first choice for professionals sincere 2005 let us first discuss the origins of islamic banking and financial system the origins of islamic financial system can be traced back from the time of prophet muhammad peace be upon him trading was main source of income of people living in makkah in makkah prophet muhammad
peace be upon him used to carried out merchandise to syria on business partnership basis when profit migrated to medina the main source of income of people living in Medina was agricultur they used to make a forward contract for prescribed dates to be delivered later in one two or three years time this was the ancient form of salaam prophet  muhammad peace be upon him allowed this kind of transactions under some conditions in addition to that islamic modes of transactions that prophet
allowed in his time include shirka a jar and surf later during eighth and twelfth centuries the Muslim world developed several sharia based financial instruments including hawala trusts promissory notes bills of exchange and check system inlaid of 19th century Islamic world started practicing modern islamic banking system which is derived from quran hearties edema and chaos in
this system or the prohibited element have been excluded such as usury uncertainty and speculation it is a very common concept that Islamic banking is not really Islamic as a matter of fact there is no issue with the Islamic banking as a system but due to some commercial minded bankers and investors the industry is facing few issues however these problems are minimizing over the time there is amajor difference between conventional banking and Islamic banking systems for example you want to start a manufacturing plant if you go to a
 conventional bank the bank will pay you
the money for the business and will charge you an interest on that money in a contrary if you go to an Islamic bank they will make partnership with you in your business since the financial risk is borne by investors only people with skilled business proposals come up this
strengthens the economy of the society and this is the reason why the Islamic banks were unaffected by recent international banking and subprime mortgage crisis the importance of Islamic financial system cannot be ignored because it is an essential need of Muslims around the world and that is twenty four percent of total world’s population this percentage is expected
to reach thirty-five percent to outnumber any other religion by year  good thing is that Islamic banking is also popular among non Muslims
because of the following reasons it condemns usury which is also strictly forbidden in Christianity Judaism would
highs and Hinduism it is an ethical and moral banking system which condemns taking advantage of others misfortunes
due to all these facts Islamic financ is now trillions of dollars industry with a yearly growth rate of more than twenty percent there are tens of
thousands of job openings every month in more than 100 countries where skilled Islamic finance professionals are needed
considering the growing demand of Islamic finance professionals eames launched MBA in Islamic banking and
financing year two thousand and five today thousands of aims graduates are offering their services to leading
financial institutions worldwide Ames is a uk-based institution and is among the pioneers of Islamic finance education aims provide quality
education which is well recognized by financial institutions globally leading Islamic finance scholars from all over
the world are associated with aims to produce highly skilled Islamic finance professionals MBA in islamic banking and
finance is a fastest way to do mastery in the subject it is a must attend training for graduates and professionals who are seeking valuable education MBA is a 48 credit hours internationally accredited program and well recognized
among the financial institutions worldwide MBA degree is a career oriented qualification and ideal for professionals seeking higher positions
in any part of the world it starts from the scratch and participants do not need any prior experience or education in Islamic finance it is hundred percent online and the lectures can be easily managed between work and family it develops skills needed to perform key
roles in the development and operations management of Islamic financial institutions the MBA have benefited thousands of professionals who are working as banker financial consultants accountants lecturers commerce
professionals insurance professionals and people willing to get the best islamic finance education available aims
qualifications have helped many graduates by increasing their salaries up to two hundred percent many of ames graduates an hour working as head of the islamic banks and head of islamic product development MBA education is delivered through highly interactive
learning contents which are available to students anywhere anytime the learning platform is very flexible students decide their own time to study and  complete the program 24-7 academic support is available to the students if you fulfill the eligibility criteria
you may achieve MBA by following three simple steps you visit our website aimsdot education and complete the online
 enrollment form within 48 hours you will receive login details and access study material that in Lachlan’s interactive lecture comprehensive study manuals islamic finance library and access to islamic finance faculty you study at your own pace and submit
assignments as per your convenience y are given two years time to complete your qualification however most of the
students complete MBA in 12 months once you complete your study you simply request your final examination that is conducted online the success ratio of
students who study as per given instructions is ninety-five percent MBA curriculum is updated on regular basis to make our graduates fully aware of recent market trends MBA is a two-part program in the first part you study the Islamic finance elective courses and in
the second part you study the businessmanagement core courses in the first or MBA elective part you study Islamic
micro and macroeconomics Islamic modes of finance Islamic commercial and investment banking Islamic accounting
treatment Islamic insurance advanced areas in Islamic finance and finally you make a project on completion of the
first part you are able to design Islamic financial products from you or an existing institution additionally you
are awarded by certified Islamic finance expert and master diploma in Islamic finance certification the second or MBA core part comprises of six business courses in which you studied business management marketing management humanresource management organizational behavior management accounting and international banking operations and laws on completion of part two you are able to formulate can
kate and implement strategic thinking processes and apply your management and business skills in the context of islamic finance aims flexible learning environment allows you to enroll anytime for more details and to register now please visit our website aims dot
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